Fish farming Business Plan: How To Start a Fish Farm

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Where do you believe the majority of the fish we consume comes from? The sea. Wrong. What about rivers and lakes? Again, Incorrect. It’s supplied from fish farms. With 10.5 lakh tonnes in quantity and 33,442 crores in value, fish and fish products have emerged as the largest group in agricultural exports in India.

Over 50 different varieties of fish and shellfish items are shipped to 75 different nations worldwide. This accounts for around 10% of total country exports and roughly 20% of agricultural exports. Indian Fisheries and Aquaculture is a significant food-producing business that provides nutritional value.

India is unquestionably a wonderland for fish culture, with much more than 7,500 kilometers of shoreline and additional water resources such as marshes, rivers, and ponds. There are no prizes for predicting one of the top five countries in terms of seafood production in India. As a consequence, the sector of food production is thriving.

Fish farming is unquestionably one of the most profitable industries, with about 60% of the population preferring to consume fisheries and fish products.

A well-kept fish pond can yield a sizable return. Learn how to set up a fish business by setting up fish breeding ponds.

What is pisciculture?

The process of the fish population growing in confined tanks is known as pisciculture. It is a vital sector of the Indian economy, adding significantly to exported goods and food production. Because the production of fish as a staple food is growing, overfishing has led to species depletion around the world.

Pisciculture vs Aquaculture

Pisciculture is primarily concerned with the production of fish-based commodities as a source of food in big tanks or ponds. It generally entails pond, reservoir, or tank farming. Paddy fields could also be utilized as a fish aquaculture supply.

Aquaculture is the breeding, growing, and harvesting of fish, shellfish, algae, and other organisms in all types of water habitats.

Aquaculture is a way of producing food and other commercial items, as well as restoring habitat and replenishing wild supplies, and rebuilding critically vulnerable animal communities.

Pisciculture focuses on fish and fish-based products, while aquaculture focuses on both plant and animal life.

The fishing industry in India

According to a report done by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, the fishing sector in India employs about 14 million people.

India accounts for around 6.3% of world fish output.

However, given that one of the Sustainable Development Goals is to improve aquatic balance, India has a long way to go before becoming a country that implements 100% sustainable fishing techniques.

For a long time, the aquatic environment and fishing communities (particularly in Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu) have suffered as a result of overfishing and unsustainable fishing techniques such as trawling (which severely harm aquatic life).

With a highly unregulated and informal supply chain, the interpretation of fishing rules is left up to the communities, with little enforcement.

The Marine Fishing Regulation Act of India mandates “prohibition on certain fishing gear, regulation on mesh size, the establishment of closed season and areas, demarcation of zones for no trawling, in addition to other measures such as the use of turtle excluder devices and designation of no-fishing areas,” the majority of which are highly unregulated.

Creating a Business Plan for your Fish Business

Executive Summary

The fish farming sector is growing, and there are several investment prospects. This has caught the attention of entrepreneurs, and a competent fish farming business plan is required to start a successful fish farming firm. The fish farming business plan executive summary section, which summarizes the whole document, is an important part of it. Due to its importance, investors pay the greatest attention to this section.

Market Analysis

Before launching a fish farming firm, you must do a feasibility study and develop a business strategy. Before starting a fish farm, do extensive market research.

Recognize the market demand in your area.

If you plan to start fish farming for export, you should first speak with fish processing companies. Prepare a backup marketing strategy to fall back on.

Skills of Fish Farming

In order to establish a fish farming firm, you must have certain talents. Government-run farms that provide training might provide you with training.

Working on a successful fish farm will also teach you how to maintain water quality, control illness, feed, market, and process fish.

  • Make sure you have a constant supply of good water.
  • Check to see if the water temperature is appropriate for the fish species being raised. Ensure that the pond is easily accessible for feeding and harvesting.
  • Chemical and bacteriological tests should be performed on the water in which you plan to start fish farming.
  • Learn about risk assessment and risk management using advanced technical methods. In fish farming, finding reputable suppliers for fish eggs, fingerlings, and feed is critical.

Chose the Right Location

A constant flow of water is the most important aspect of fash cultivation. If you want to start in a community, you’ll need to find a pond with a good water source. If the location is in a city or town, however, you must have access to the municipality’s water supply.

Cost of Starting Fish Farming Business

In this agricultural industry, there are two forms of capital investments. The fixed capital cost is one, while the operational cost is the other. Land and building costs, as well as crafts ponds, transport trucks, plumbing arrangements, numerous tanks, and oxygen meters, are all included in the capital cost.

Purchasing eggs or fingerlings, fish feed, power, gasoline, labor, chemical, medicine, tax, insurance, phone, transportation, and other maintenance costs are all included in the operating costs.

Prepare a precise cost assessment of your intended fish-related farming operation before starting into the industry. The calculations will fluctuate depending on the sort of fish you intend to grow. In addition, your target production and overall land area should be considered.


Feeds for Fish

It is critical to ensure that the fish survives to complete its growth cycle in order to breed fish perfectly. It’s also critical that the fish reproduce naturally.

Salmon and other carnivorous fish consume other fish in the wild. Fish oils and proteins, as well as plant proteins, minerals, and vitamins, are included in farmed carnivorous fish (as well as much herbivorous fish) meals to meet the nutritional needs of the fish while also providing health advantages to people.

What kind of fish should be bred at the farm?

The choice of the proper fish breed for farming is among the most significant aspects of starting up the fish farm procedure. It’s important to remember that not all varieties of fish can be bred on the farm.

Catfish, tilapia, salmon, carp, cod, and trout are all commonly farmed fish. Culture Systems for Fish Farming Mariculture is primarily concerned with the cultivation of food for human consumption.

Farm Mechanisation Application Form

Farm mechanization refers to the use of machinery instead of human and livestock labor in agriculture sector activities.

An application for farm mechanization might be made by someone who wants to start a fish farming enterprise. The following credentials are necessary for applying:

  1. Fish farming application form
  2. Plan from MAO for the seafood farming sector.
  3. Documents that have been proofread
  4. Picture of a person
  5. Evidence of a person’s identity

Choose the Type of Fisheries for farming

The fish production supplies of India are diverse, with roughly 1,570 finfish species and 1,000 shellfish varieties. India has made significant progress in the field of fishery resources since freedom.

The following are the primary types of fisheries in India:

  1. Marine Fisheries: These fisheries, which contribute to almost 40% of total yearly fish production and are constrained to coastal regions in the west from Kachchh, Malabar coast to Coromandal coast in the east, are scattered over slender belts of continental shelves and slope stretching for 5,600 km with a total fishable area of about 2,81,600 sq km.
  2. Freshwater or Inland Fishery: Freshwater or inland fishing takes place in rivers, canals, irrigation channels, tanks, ponds, and lakes, among other places. Inland fisheries account for over 60% of the nation’s overall seafood output. (Inland fishing productivity has recently surpassed that of marine fishery production.) Freshwater fishing can be classified into two types.
  3. Estuarine Fisheries: This category includes estuaries, backwaters, tidal estuaries, lagoons, inundated—areas, and swamps all along the coastline, including the Krishna, Cauvery, Narmada, Ganga, Mahanadi, Godavari, and Tapi, as well as the brine lakes of Chilka and Pulicat and Kerala’s backwaters. A popular type of prawn is the white prawn (Penaeus indicus)  and tiger prawn which is a more suitable species for the Indian culture.
  4. Pearl Fisheries: Regions are frequently found on ridges, rocks, or dead corals that form huge pearl banks at depths of 18-22 meters. The distance from the shore is around 20 kilometers. High-value pearls are extracted from pearl oysters. The Gulf of Mannar, Gulf of Kachchh, Palk Bay, and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands are the main centers. They are a monopoly owned by the government.


Natural or plastic pond– This is one of the most important things that you may need when thinking of fish farming. You can use them as fish tanks of a bigger size. It is also ideal for people to get started with this business using tanks in a small room.

You can also get it installed on the rooftop or on the ground. You can also look around for artificial ponds that are available on the market. The cost factor may depend on quality and size.


The most important prerequisites for obtaining a license for a fishery business are as follows:

  1. Identify the location where you intend to start your fish farm.
  2. Development of the plan, including planning papers and a rough estimate, as well as bank loan paperwork if you have taken out a land mortgage.
  3. You must obtain training in the field of fish farming.
  4. Pond installation with appropriate inlets and outlets.
  5. Liming, plankton bloom, manuring, water filling, seed stocking, and other aspects of stocking administration are included.
  6. Documentation pertaining to soil and water analysis.
  7. Selective harvesting and trail screening
  8. Fish nutrition and administration
  9. Strategies for bettering farming methods
  10. Expenses associated with fish aquaculture.

Financial Analysis

The company can be created with a small investment of Rs 30 to 50 thousand. You might need to spend more cash on fish food, power, water, and eggs. This could be anywhere between Rs 1 and 1.5 lakh. You may have to invest more than Rs 2 lakh in the beginning.

It goes without saying that if you commit roughly Rs 1 lakh, you may expect to turn a gain of over Rs 3 lakh. This could also be influenced by elements such as manufacturing, advertising, and others.

Make sure you have a significant amount set aside to work on your marketing and social media advertising since these are key components of any well-functioning start-up.

Fish Farming Technology in India

The Fisheries Institute of Technology and Training (FITT) was founded in Chennai in conjunction with the Tata Group to help fishermen improve their socioeconomic situation. The Integrated Fisheries Project was created to conduct research on atypical fish processing, increasing popularity, and commercialization. There are currently 19 state-run fisheries institutions in operation.

Along with the significant Indian major carp species, other varieties such as catfish, murrel, and prawns have recently been added to India’s reproductive and cultural technologies, (particularly Catla, mrigal, and rohu).

Why do Fisheries Fail?

Even though India has a huge number of waterbodies and various exotic species for both flora and fauna, India witnesses lower farm productivity and profitability as compared to many other nations.

What are the reasons behind failure?

  1. Non-scientific Approach
  2. Lack of awareness
  3. Ignorance of technology and new ways
  4. Inferior-quality feedstock
  5. Inadequate Management

Points to Remember

  1. Make sure you try out your set-up at a smaller scale first before you get into full-scale development.
  2. Make sure you have more varieties of seafood, and even other farming practices so you have more options to sell
  3. You can begin by purchasing a small plastic tub or tank to use at home. It can be mounted anywhere, including on your roof or in a closed space. Due to the stench of fish, you may need to obtain a NOC from society. You may need to spend money on fish meals and medications. You must also guarantee that the water is cleaned regularly.

Fishing Related Resources

There are a variety of tools available to help you learn important facts about running and maintaining a childcare center. A few of them are listed below.


  1. Udemy
  2. ACSD Education
  3. ICAR


  1. Hand Book of Fish Farming & Fishery Products
  2. Biofloc Technology – A Practical Guidebook
  3. The Freshwater Aquaculture Book


  1. FishFarmingExpert
  2. IndiaMart AquaCulture Consultancy
  3. KisaanMittr


You obtained a lot of this data while you were originally putting together your company strategy, and you can subsequently utilize it to help you prioritize your marketing. Put out flyers in your neighborhood, and start a social media presence (Twitter, Facebook, LinkedIn).

The fish farming sector has a lot of scope for creativity because as of now there are mostly shops in a line, where there’s a bad odor, no crowd control, and no quality assurance. If one spins it the right way, they could easily have a huge consumer base and maybe even higher sales and revenues. Licious, while dealing in all sorts of meats, is a very good example of such creativity in this type of business.

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